Time Line

1981-now

The Fort near Velsen is largely demolished in 1981. This triggers the decision to protect the ‘Stelling’ as a provincial monument and part of it (Utrecht and Pampus) as a state monument. The Defence Line of Amsterdam becomes a National Landscape and is included in the UNESCO World ... Read more

1960 - 1981

A future as a recreational area is considered for the Defence Line of Amsterdam. Read more
1945-1960

1945 - 1960

The Defence Line of Amsterdam leads a dormant existence. In 1960 it loses its status as a defensive structure. Read more
Fort Ijmuiden lichting 1927

First and second World war

1914 - 1945

During World War I, weak positions were strengthened with additional frontal positions. In the 1930s the Defence Line was further extended with concrete buildings such as casemates and troop spaces. During World War II there were two inundations, in 1940 and 1944. Read more
1907-1914

The second standard design (b)

1907 - 1914

The construction of shellproof buildings based on the second standard design (b) at the northern front; 1913 the last remaining forts of the New Dutch Waterline (Uitermeer and Hinderdam) were added to the Defence Line. Construction of forts completed. Read more

The first standard design (a)

1896 - 1907

1896 the Inundation Act came into force. 1897 the construction of shellproof buildings along the Defence Line of Amsterdam was resumed. Read more
1884-1896

1884 - 1896

The first newly constructed fort of the defensive ring was situated near Abcoude and completed in 1885. It consisted of shellproof military barracks, depots and open artillery deployments, surrounded by earth walls. The entire complex was surrounded by a moat. The idea was to apply this design ... Read more
1874-1881

Fortification Act

1874 - 1884

Fortification Act. The use of modern, powerful artillery during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871 sparked concerns over Holland’s poor defence system. This resulted in the Wet tot regeling en voltooiing van het vestingstelsel (Vestingwet) (Act regarding the regulation and completion of ... Read more

Before

1845 - 1874

Change of the strategic landscape: reclamation of lake Haarlemmermeer and lake IJmeer; the period of the tower forts around lake Haarlemmermeer and along the New Dutch Waterline (a military line of defence that extended from the former Zuiderzee near Muiden to the Biesbosch). Read more
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Passable part of an inundation in the form of elevated terrain, a road, (railway) embankment or waterway.

Collective term for projectile weapons.

Also called bulwark. An outward-projecting pentagonal structure, suitable for delivering flanking fire.

A storage site for military equipment. The parks in the Defence Line are spread out over sectors (sector parks) and groups (group parks).

A battery that is positioned behind armour plates.

A fort with one or more armoured artillery positions.

A number of artillery pieces combined into one group.

Shielded position from which defenders can harass the enemy.

A (low) defensive structure that extends into the moat and can be used to give flanking fire.

A space that is protected against enemy fire and is outfitted with a gun port, behind which a piece of artillery is placed.

An army division whose tasks include, amongst other things, the construction of temporary and permanent defensive structures. The term ‘engineer’ is derived from the French word ‘ingenieur’.

Also called covert way. A pathway that is protected from enemy fire by an earthen wall and can be used for transporting soldiers and military equipment.

Also called stop-log sluice. A temporary dam that stops the inundation water when beams are stacked up in its recesses.

Water purification system that improves the quality of drinking water by extracting iron.

Earthen elevation surrounding a defensive structure, featuring a breastwork.

A (wooden) shed where artillery and military engineering equipment were stored.

The part of a terrain that can be fired at.

Long-range flanking fire: fire support for the secondary forts. Short-range flanking fire: fire that covers the surroundings of the defensive structure itself.

Known in Dutch as ‘Vestingwet’. The act of the 18th of April 1874 that stipulated which forts would become part of the Dutch national defence system.

The side of a defensive structure that is facing away from the enemy.

In the Defence Line forts this is a casemate giving short-range and long-range flanking fire.

Undercarriage for a cannon or other heavy firearm.

Shell that is filled with highly explosive material.

The flooding of land to keep the enemy at bay.

Also called inlet sluice. A sluice that is constructed with the aim of letting water into a certain area.

An independent system of connected defensive structures.

Artillery that gives frontal fire over large distances, directly aimed at enemy positions.

A simple (temporary) defensive structure manned by a small number of soldiers.

An underground connecting passageway that is shellproof.

Known in Dutch as ‘Kringenwet’. Act of January 1853 that stipulates restrictions with regard to the construction of buildings in the vicinity of defensive structures, the so-called forbidden zones (‘kringen’), in order to guarantee a free field of fire.

A chart that is installed next to the gun port to give the operators of the artillery insight into the distances of targets and the corresponding firing angles.

A place of last refuge for the defenders of a fort, which can be defended independently.

A turret that is lifted up to give fire and is retracted and thus made almost invisible once the firing has stopped.

Position that provides shelter to retreating troops.

Battery that is situated in close proximity to a fort and performs some of the tasks that have been assigned to that fort.

The ability of a building to withstand gunfire thanks to brickwork, concrete or a bottom layer.

A shellproof depot for storing artillery and other essential military equipment.

A fort’s courtyard.

Ground-plan.

A turnable armoured artillery position.